Communication in open disclosure conversations about adverse events in hospitals

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Authors

Bernadette Watson, Daniel Angus, Lyndsey Gore, Jillann Farmer

Abstract

We analyzed eight interactions between clinicians and simulated patients or family members discussing adverse events in patient care. We targeted the interactants' accommodative communication strategies when they discussed the consequent patient harm. In Study 1, 80 psychology students rated eight open disclosure video recordings for the presence of CAT strategies. In the recordings categorized as effective, clinicians demonstrated accommodative emotional expression and interactants engaged in more accommodative interpretability and interpersonal control strategies than in ineffective recordings. In Study 2, the same recordings were analyzed using Discursis (a textual analysis software program). Discursis uses new technology to visualize and identify speaker approximation. Approximation patterns correlated with findings from Study 1. Results provide insights into which CAT strategies assist managing open disclosure.

External link

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271530914000755

Reference

Watson, B.M., et al., Communication in open disclosure conversations about adverse events in hospitals, Language & Communication (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2014.10.013.

Visualising conversations between care home staff and residents with dementia

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Authors

Rosemary Baker, Daniel Angus, Erin Smith-Conway, Katharine Baker, Cindy Gallois, Andrew Smith, Janet Wiles, Helen Chenery

Abstract

People with dementia living in residential care often face the dual disadvantage of increasing difficulty with communication and reduced opportunities for conversation. Social interaction is central to wellbeing of residents with dementia, so it is important that care staff have the skills to engage in conversation with them. We studied conversations in 20 care staff–resident dyads, to examine conversation structure and content, patterns of engagement within conversations, including the topics around which engagement occurred, and communication behaviours by care staff that appeared to facilitate (or impede) participation by residents. The transcripts were analysed using Discursis, a computational information visualisation tool that allows interactive visual inspection, in context, of the contributions by each speaker, the turn-taking dynamics, and the content recurring within and between speakers. We present case examples (a) where care staff did most of the talking, initiated topics and were responsible for most recurrence of content; (b) where talk was more evenly shared between partners, with some topics initiated and/or elaborated by participants with dementia; and (c) where participants with dementia talked most, with care staff supporting the conversation. We identified accommodative strategies used by care staff, such as reflecting back the other person's responses to sustain engagement. We also noted care staff behaviours that impeded communication, such as not listening attentively and not allowing sufficient time for responses. The results from this study highlight aspects of social communication within the aged care context and suggest ways in which rewarding interactions between staff and residents with dementia might be encouraged.

External link

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=9015611&jid=ASO&volumeId=-1&issueId=-1&aid=9015609

Reference

Baker, Rosemary, Angus, Daniel, Smith-Conway, Erin R., Baker, Katharine S., Gallois, Cindy, Smith, Andrew, Wiles, Janet and Chenery, Helen J. (2013) Visualising conversations between care home staff and residents with dementia. Ageing and SocietyFirstView 1-28. doi:10.1017/S0144686X13000640 

Making sense of big text: a visual-first approach for analysing text data using Leximancer and Discursis

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Authors

Daniel Angus, Sean RintelJanet Wiles

Abstract

This article reports on Leximancer and Discursis, two visual text analytic software tools developed at the University of Queensland. Both analyse spatial and temporal relationships in text data, but in complementary ways: Leximancer focuses on thematic analysis, while Discursis focuses on sequential analysis. Our report explains how they work, how to work with them and how visual concepts are relevant to all stages of their use in analytic decision-making.

External link

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2013.774186

Reference

Angus, D., Rintel, S., & Wiles, J. (2013). Making sense of big text: a visual-first approach for analysing text data using Leximancer and Discursis. International Journal of Social Research Methodology16(3). doi:10.1380/3645579.2013.774186

Visualising Conversation Structure across Time: Insights into Effective Doctor-Patient Consultations

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Authors

Daniel AngusBernadette WatsonAndrew SmithCindy GalloisJanet Wiles

Abstract

Effective communication between healthcare professionals and patients is critical to patients’ health outcomes. The doctor/patient dialogue has been extensively researched from different perspectives, with findings emphasising a range of behaviours that lead to effective communication. Much research involves self-reports, however, so that behavioural engagement cannot be disentangled from patients’ ratings of effectiveness. In this study we used a highly efficient and time economic automated computer visualisation measurement technique called Discursis to analyse conversational behaviour in consultations. Discursis automatically builds an internal language model from a transcript, mines the transcript for its conceptual content, and generates an interactive visual account of the discourse. The resultant visual account of the whole consultation can be analysed for patterns of engagement between interactants. The findings from this study show that Discursis is effective at highlighting a range of consultation techniques, including communication accommodation, engagement and repetition.

External link

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038014

Reference

Angus D, Watson B, Smith A, Gallois C, Wiles J (2012) Visualising Conversation Structure across Time: Insights into Effective Doctor-Patient Consultations. PLoS ONE 7(6): e38014. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038014

Human Communication as Coupled Time Series: Quantifying Multi-Participant Recurrence

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Authors

Daniel AngusAndrew E. SmithJanet Wiles

Abstract

Human communication is more than just the transmission of information. It also involves complex interaction dynamics that reflect the roles and communication styles of the participants. A novel approach to studying human communication is to view conversation as a coupled time series and apply analysis techniques from dynamical systems to the recurring topics or concepts. In this paper, we define a set of metrics that enable quantification of the complex interaction dynamics visible in conceptual recurrence. These multi-participant recurrence (MPR) metrics can be seen as an extension of recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) into the symbolic domain. This technique can be used to monitor the state of a communication system and inform about interaction dynamics, including the level of topic consistency between participants; the timing of state changes for the participants as a result of changes in topic focus; and, patterns of topic proposal, reflection, and repetition. We demonstrate three use studies applying the new metrics to conversation transcripts from different genres to demonstrate their ability to characterize individual communication participants and intergroup communication patterns.

External link

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6161608&isnumber=6176018

Reference

Angus, D.; Smith, A.E.; Wiles, J.; , "Human Communication as Coupled Time Series: Quantifying Multi-Participant Recurrence," Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, IEEE Transactions on , vol.20, no.6, pp.1795-1807, Aug. 2012
doi: 10.1109/TASL.2012.2189566

Conceptual Recurrence Plots: Revealing Patterns in Human Discourse

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Daniel Angus, Andrew SmithJanet Wiles

Abstract

Human discourse contains a rich mixture of conceptual information. Visualization of the global and local patterns within this data stream is a complex and challenging problem. Recurrence plots are an information visualization technique that can reveal trends and features in complex time series data. The recurrence plot technique works by measuring the similarity of points in a time series to all other points in the same time series and plotting the results in two dimensions. Previous studies have applied recurrence plotting techniques to textual data; however, these approaches plot recurrence using term-based similarity rather than conceptual similarity of the text. We introduce conceptual recurrence plots, which use a model of language to measure similarity between pairs of text utterances, and the similarity of all utterances is measured and displayed. In this paper, we explore how the descriptive power of the recurrence plotting technique can be used to discover patterns of interaction across a series of conversation transcripts. The results suggest that the conceptual recurrence plotting technique is a useful tool for exploring the structure of human discourse.

External link

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5887327&isnumber=6180049

Reference

Angus, D.; Smith, A.; Wiles, J.; , "Conceptual Recurrence Plots: Revealing Patterns in Human Discourse," Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.18, no.6, pp.988-997, June 2012. doi: 10.1109/TVCG.2011.100

Visualizing punctuated equilibria in discursive change: exploring a new text analysis possibility for management research

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Authors

Daniel Angus, David Rooney, Bernard McKenna, Janet Wiles

Abstract

We present a new method of visualizing textual data that brings an evolutionary perspective to management research. The method uses two text analysis software applications, Leximancer and Discursis to provide visualizations of the semantic content and temporal structure of time series data. We use the method fo map discursive change in the history of ideas in a journal. Data used in this analysis is comprised of abstracts of empirical articles published in the journal, Management Communication Quarterly, over twenty years. Findings demonstrate the turbulent nature of discursive change, and show how it is structured into punctuated equilibria with phase transitions separating successive discursive regimes. In particular, our findings identify the period of scholarship based on a discursive and critical orientation and the transition point when it began.

External link

https://docs.google.com/open?id=0B8PsXA1_ZqKMUC1EYUwzaldNVzg

Reference

Angus, D., Rooney, D., McKenna, B., & Wiles, J. (2012). Visualizing punctuated equilibria in discursive change: exploring a new text analysis possibility for management research. Journal of Business and Management Landscapes1(1), 1-16.